Country Narratives

In these narratives, we present documented evidence of the presence/absence of the use of institutionalized ethnic categories, by country.

For each country, we identified a wide set of primary, secondary, and tertiary source materials. For each of the following sets of institutions — the census, national identity cards, education and job preference policies, voting and leadership rules, provisions for territorial autonomy, the use of public facilities, and language policies — researchers were instructed to identify all examples of the use of ethnic categories. These details are provided in each country narrative.

Further discussion of the conceptualization/measurement of institutionalized ethnic categories can be found in our working paper.

Angola
Botswana
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Namibia
South Africa
Swaziland
Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe