Documentation

This page details all documents and source materials used in our research. Eventually, we will post a searchable database of all materials. Owing to copyright restrictions, we cannot post articles and documents on this site, but we can send documents upon request.

Please send suggestions/documents/links of additional, relevant sources.

Sources

Angola
Botswana
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Namibia
South Africa
Swaziland
Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Africa Regional Sources

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Angola

Alao, Abiodun. 1994. Brothers at war: dissidence and rebellion in southern Africa. London; New York: British Academic Press; St. Martin’s Press.

Bender, G.J. 1978. Angola under the Portuguese: the myth and the reality: Univ of California Pr.

Duffy, J. 1961. “Portuguese Africa (Angola and Mozambique): Some Crucial Problems and the Role of Education in Their Resolution.” The Journal of Negro Education 30 (3):294-301.

Government of Angola. 2002. “Regulation for the Application of Norms on the Resettlement of Displaced Persons (Decreto 79/02).” Luanda.

Heywood, Linda M. 1989. “Unita and Ethnic Nationalism in Angola.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 27 (1):47-66.

———. 2000. Contested power in Angola, 1840s to the present. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Isaacman, Allen F., and Barbara Isaacman. 1976. The tradition of resistance in Mozambique: the Zambesi Valley, 1850-1921: Univ of California Press.

James, WM, and SH Broadhead. 2004. Historical dictionary of Angola: Scarecrow Pr.

Le Billon, P. 2001. “Angola’s political economy of war: The role of oil and diamonds, 1975ñ2000.” African Affairs 100 (398):55.

Lyle, B. 2005. “Blood for Oil: Secession, Self-Determination, and Superpower Silence in Cabinda.” Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev. 4:701.

Malaquias, Assis. 2000. “Ethnicity and conflict in Angola: prospects for reconciliation.” In Angola’s war economy : the role of oil and diamonds, ed. J. Cilliers and C. Dietrich. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.

———. 2007. Rebels and robbers: violence in post-colonial Angola: Nordic Africa Inst.

Munslow, B. 1999. “Angola: the politics of unsustainable development.” Third World Quarterly 20 (3):551-68.

Republic of Angola. 1992. “Constitutional Law of the Republic of Angola.”

———. 2010. “Constitution of the Republic of Angola.”

Republica de Angola Assembleia Nacional. 2001. “Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação.” In No. 13/01, ed. R. d. A. A. Nacional. Luanda.

World Vision UK. 2000. “Angola: a tangled web: many players in a complex war.” World Vision.

Regional Sources

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Botswana

Abdi Ismail, Samatar. 1999. An African miracle : state and class leadership and colonial legacy in Botswana development. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Baring, E. 1952. “Problems of the High Commission Territories.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 28 (2):184-9.

BBC. 2006. Timeline: Botswana, July 17 2006 2006 [cited October 17 2006]. Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/3638691.stm.

Carroll, B. W., and T. Carroll. 1997. “State and ethnicity in Botswana and Mauritius: a democratic route to development?” Journal of Development Studies 33 (4):464-86.

Dale, Richard. 1995. Botswana’s search for autonomy in southern Africa. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Du Toit, P. van der P. 1995. State building and democracy in Southern Africa : Botswana, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa (EISA). 2011. Botswana: Late British colonialism 2009 [cited July 26 2011]. Available from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/botoverview4.htm.

Embassy of Botswana, Japan. 2006. History, Language, Culture 2006 [cited Octobter 16 2006]. Available from http://www.botswanaembassy.or.jp/gene_info/body2.html.

Fage, J. D. 1995. A history of Africa. 3rd ed. London: New York.

Fawcus, Peter, and Alan Tilbury. 2000. Botswana : the road to independence. Gaborone, Botswana: Pula Press and the Botswana Society.

Gewald, J.B. 2002. “‘I Was Afraid of Samuel, Therefore I Came to Sekgoma': Herero Refugees and Patronage Politics in Ngamiland, Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1890-1914.” Journal of African History 43 (2):211-34.

Government of Botswana. 1966. “Constitution of Botswana.”

Halpern, Jack. 1965. South Africa’s hostages: Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

Helle-Valle, J. 2002. “Seen from below: Conceptions of politics and the state in a Botswana village.” Africa 72 (2):179-202.

Hitchcock, R.K. 2002. “‘We are the First People': Land, Natural Resources and Identity in the Central Kalahari, Botswana.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28 (4):797-824.

Kowet, D.K. 1978. Land, labour migration and politics in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.

Maundeni, Zibani. 2005. 40 years of democracy in Botswana, 1965-2005. Gaborone, Botswana: Mmegi Publishing House.

Meyer, John W., Joane Nagel, and Conrad W. Snyder, Jr. 1993. “The Expansion of Mass Education in Botswana: Local and World Society Perspectives.” Comparative Education Review 37 (4):454-75.

Mgadla, P.T. 2003. A history of education in the Bechuanaland Protectorate to 1965: Univ Pr of Amer.

Morton, Fred, Jeff Ramsay, and Part Themba Mgadla. 2008. “Historical dictionary of Botswana.” In Historical dictionaries of Africa: Scarecrow Press.

Motzafi-Haller, P. 1994. “when Bushmen are known as Basarwa: gender, ethnicity, and differentiation in rural Botswana.” American ethnologist 21 (3):539-63.

Picard, Louis A. 1985. The evolution of modern Botswana : politics and rural development in Southern Africa. London: Rex Collings.

Ramsay, Jeff, Part Themba Mgadla, and Barry Morton. 1996. Building a nation : a history of Botswana from 1800 to 1910. Gaborone: Longman Botswana.

Sillery, Anthony. 1952. The Bechuanaland Protectorate. [With genealogical tables and a map.]. pp. xii. 236. Oxford University Press: Cape Town: 1952.

Solway, Jacqueline S. 2002. “Navigating the ‘Neutral’ State: ‘Minority’ Rights in Botswana.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28 (4):711-29.

Stevens, R.P. 1967. Lesotho, Botswana, & Swaziland: The Former High Commission Territories in Southern Africa: Pall Mall P.

Werbner, R. 2002. “Cosmopolitan ethnicity, entrepreneurship and the nation: Minority elites in Botswana.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28 (4):731-53.

———. 2002. “Introduction: challenging minorities, difference and tribal citizenship in Botswana.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28 (4):671-84.

Wilmsen, E.N. 2002. “Mutable identities: moving beyond ethnicity in Botswana.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28 (4):825-41.

Regional Sources

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Lesotho

Ambrose, David. Summary of Events in Lesotho, Volume 11, Number 22004 [cited. Available from trc.org.ls.

Baring, E. 1952. “Problems of the High Commission Territories.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 28 (2):184-9.

Central Bank of Lesotho. 2005. “Public Expenditure Management.” Central Bank of Lesotho Economic Review.

Fage, J. D. 1995. A history of Africa. 3rd ed. London: New York.

Gay, J., and T.J. Green. 2001. Citizen perceptions of democracy, governance, and political crisis in Lesotho: Institute for Democracy in South Africa.

Government of Lesotho. 1993. “The Constitution of Lesotho.” ed. G. o. Lesotho.

Halpern, Jack. 1965. South Africa’s hostages: Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

Kowet, D.K. 1978. Land, labour migration and politics in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.

Lesotho News Agency. 2003. “Members of Parliament Appreciate Identity Cards.” Lesotho News Agency, 22 September 2003.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1999. “Fourteenth periodic report of States parties due in 1998 : Lesotho. 08/09/98.” Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Poulter, S. 1969. “The Common Law in Lesotho.” Journal of African Law 13 (03):127-44.

Quinlan, T. 1996. “The State and National Identity in Lesotho.” Journal of Legal Pluralism 37:377-406.

Rosenberg, Scott, Richard Frederick Weisfelder, Michelle Frisbie-Fulton, and Gordon MacKay Haliburton. 2004. “Historical dictionary of Lesotho.” In African historical dictionaries: Scarecrow Press.

Sesotho Online. Basotho in Lesotho [cited. Available from http://www.sesotho.web.za/lesotho.htm.

Stevens, R.P. 1967. Lesotho, Botswana, & Swaziland: The Former High Commission Territories in Southern Africa: Pall Mall P.

Thelejani, T.S. 1990. “Implementing educational policies in Lesotho.” World Bank-Discussion Papers.

United Nations. 2000. “United Nations Press Release.”

Weisfelder, R.F. 1981. “The Basotho Nation-State: What Legacy for the Future?” The Journal of Modern African Studies 19 (02):221-56.

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Malawi

“Malawi.” 2011. In Encyclopedia Britannica Online, ed. E. Britannica.

BBC. 2001. “No Go For Malawi Senate.” BBC News, January 12, 2001.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2008. “International Religious Freedom Report 2008.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.

Carver, Richard. 1990. Where silence rules : the suppression of dissent in Malawi. New York, N.Y.: Human Rights Watch.

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa (EISA). 2007. “Malawi: Constitution.” Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa (EISA).

Englund, Harri. 2006. “Prisoners of freedom : human rights and the African poor.” In California series in public anthropology: University of California Press.

Friends of Malawi. 2010. Learn About Malawi: About Malawian Culture: Religion 2004 [cited 29 March 2010]. Available from http://friendsofmalawi.org/learn_about_malawi/culture/religion.html.

Gilman, L. 2009. The dance of politics: gender, performance, and democratization in Malawi: Temple Univ Pr.

Kapindu, R.E. 2009. “GlobaLex – Malawi: Legal System and Research Resources.” Hauser Global Law School Program.

Kaspin, Deborah. 1995. “The politics of ethnicity in Malawi’s democratic transition.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 33 (04):595-620.

Lee, C.J.H. 2005. “The ‘Native’ Undefined: Colonial Categories, Anglo-African Status and the Politics of Kinship in British Central Africa, 1929-38.” The Journal of African History 46 (03):455-78.

Marjomaa, R. 2003. “The Martial Spirit: Yao Soldiers in British Service in Nyasaland (Malawi), 1895-1939.” The Journal of African History 44 (3):413-32.

Mutharika, A. P. 1996. “The 1995 Democratic Constitution of Malawi.” Journal of African Law 40 (02):205-20.

National Statistics Office of Malawi. 1998. “Cultural and Economic Activity.” ed. National Statistics Office of Malawi.

———. 1998. “1998 Population and Housing Census Analytical Report.” ed. National Statistics Office of Malawi.

———. 2008. “2008 Population and Housing Census Main Report.” ed. National Statistics Office of Malawi.

Ngozo, Claire. 2009. “Malawi: Non-Voters Denied Farm Subsidies.” In Inter Press Service.

Page, M.E. 1978. “The War of Thangata: Nyasaland and the East African Campaign, 1914-1918.” Journal of African History 19 (1):87-100.

Peaslee, Amos J. 1965. Constitutions of nations. Edited by D. P. Xydis. Rev. 3d ed. 4 vols. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.

Posner, Daniel N. 2004. “The political salience of cultural difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are allies in Zambia and adversaries in Malawi.” American Political Science Review 98 (04):529-45.

Power, J. 1993. “Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Anglo-Indian Trade Rivalry in Colonial Malawi, 1910-1945.” The International journal of African historical studies 26 (3):575-607.

Roberts, S. 1964. “The Constitution of Malawi, 1964.” Journal of African Law 8 (3):178-84.

———. 1968. “The Malawi Law of Succession: Another Attempt at Reform.” Journal of African Law 12 (2):81-8.

University World News. 2010. “MALAWI: Churches try to avert university quotas.” University World News, 17 January, 2010.

Vail, Leroy. 1989. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. London: James Currey.

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Mozambique

Alao, Abiodun. 1994. Brothers at war: dissidence and rebellion in southern Africa. London; New York: British Academic Press; St. Martin’s Press.

Arnaldo, C. 2004. “Ethnicity and marriage patterns in Mozambique.” African Population Studies 19:1.

Azevedo, Mario Joaquim, Emmanuel U. Nnadozie, and Tombe Nhamitambo Mbuia-João. 2003. Historical dictionary of Mozambique. 2nd ed. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Duffy, J. 1961. “Portuguese Africa (Angola and Mozambique): Some Crucial Problems and the Role of Education in Their Resolution.” The Journal of Negro Education 30 (3):294-301.

Harris, Marvin. 1958. Portugal’s African “wards”; a first-hand report on labor and education in Moçambique: [New York] American Committee on Africa.

Henriksen, Thomas. 1976. “People’s War in Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bissau.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 14 (03):377-99.

———. 1978. Mozambique: A History. London, UK: Rex, Collings Ltd.

Honwana, Raúl Bernardo Manuel, and Allen F. Isaacman. 1988. The life history of Raúl Honwana : an inside view of Mozambique from colonialism to independence, 1905-1975. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers.

Isaacman, Allen F. 1972. Mozambique: the Africanization of a European institution; the Zambesi prazos, 1750-1902. Madison,: University of Wisconsin Press.

———. 1978. A luta continua : creating a new society in Mozambique. Binghamton, N.Y.: Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, and Civilizations, State University of New York.

Isaacman, Allen F., and Barbara Isaacman. 1983. Mozambique : from colonialism to revolution, 1900-1982. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.

———. 2004. Slavery and beyond : the making of men and Chikunda ethnic identities in the unstable world of south-central Africa, 1750-1920. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

O’Laughlin, B. 2000. “Class and the customary: the ambiguous legacy of the Indigenato in Mozambique.” African Affairs 99 (394):5-42.

Rotberg, Robert I. 2002. Ending autocracy, enabling democracy : the tribulations of Southern Africa, 1960-2000. Cambridge, Mass., Washington, D.C.: World Peace Foundation; Brookings Institution Press.

Virtanen, P. 2003. “Defining the’Other': Democracy in Mozambique Within-A Historical Perspective.” African and Asian Studies 2 (3):233-58.

Weinstein, J, and L Francisco. 2005. “The civil war in Mozambique: The balance between internal and external influences.” Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis. New York and Washington DC: The World Bank:157-93.

Weinstein, J.M. 2002. “Mozambique: a fading UN success story.” Journal of Democracy 13 (1):141-56.

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Namibia

Bauer, Gretchen. 2000. “Review: Affirmative Action in Namibia: the Imbalances of the Past? by Herbert M. Jauch.” African Studies Review43 (2):166-7.

———. 2001. “Namibia in the first decade of independence: how democratic?” Journal of Southern African Studies 27 (1):33-55.

Bujra, Abdalla S., Sipho Buthelezi, and Development Policy Management Forum. 2002. “Leadership, civil society and democratisation in Africa : case studies from southern Africa.”xiv, 356.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2005. “2005 Report on International Religious Freedom.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.

———. 2010. “2009 Human Rights Report.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.

D’Amato, A.A. 1966. “Apartheid in South West Africa: Five Claims of Equality.” Portia LJ 1:59.

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa. 2010. Namibia: Electoral system 2009 [cited 26 April 2010]. Available from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/nam4.htm.

Fosse, L.J. 1997. “Negotiating the Nation: Ethnicity, Nationalism and Nation Building in Independent Namibia.” Nations and Nationalism 3 (3):427-50.

Friedman, J. T. 2005. “Making Politics, Making History: Chiefship and the Post-Apartheid State in Namibia.” Journal of Southern African Studies 31 (1):23-51.

Gawanas, Bience. 1993. “Legal Rights of Namibian Women & Affirmative Action: The Eradication of Gender Inequalities.” Review of African Political Economy 56:116-22.

Hamma, Carolina, and Johanna Sixtensson. 2005. “They say: divided we fall, united we stand…”:, Malmö Högskola.

Jauch, Herbert. 1999. “Human Resource Development and Affirmative Action in Namibia: A Trade Union Perspective.” ed. Labour Resource and Research Institute.

Kossler, R. 2000. “From reserve to homeland: local identities and South African policy in southern Namibia.” Journal of Southern African Studies 26 (3):447-62.

Melber, Henning. 2009. “Namibia: The Country’s Forgotten Political Prisoners.” allAfrica.com, 31 July 2009.

Potgieter, P. J. J. S. 1991. “The resolution 435 election in Namibia.” Politikon 18 (2):26-48.

Republic of Namibia. 1990. “The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia.” ed. R. o. Namibia.

Reynolds, A. 1999. Electoral systems and democratization in Southern Africa: Oxford University Press, USA.

Rotberg, Robert I. 2002. Ending autocracy, enabling democracy : the tribulations of Southern Africa, 1960-2000. Cambridge, Mass., Washington, D.C.: World Peace Foundation; Brookings Institution Press.

Strand, Per. 1991. SWAPO and nation building in Namibia : transfer of power in the post-communist era. Windhoek: Namibian Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Namibia.

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South Africa

“Labour race classification criticised.” 2006. iAfrica, 27 September 2006.

Alexander, N. 2007. “Affirmative action and the perpetuation of racial identities in post-apartheid South Africa.” Transformation: critical perspectives on Southern Africa 63 (1):92-108.

Bendix, Reinhard. 1989. Embattled reason : essays on social knowledge, volume II. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Byrnes, R. M. 1997. South Africa: A country study. Vol. 550: Bernan Press.

Davenport, T.R.H. 1991. “South Africa: a modern history.”

Department of Labour. 2004. “Basic Guide to Affirmative Action.” ed. D. o. Labour.

Dugard, J. 1978. Human rights and the South African legal order. Vol. 399. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Elphick, Richard, and Hermann Buhr Giliomee. 1989. The Shaping of South African Society, 1652-1840. 1st edition ed. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Gough, David H. 1996. “English in South Africa.” In Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles: Oxford University Press.

Leibbrandt, H.C.V. 1905. Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope: Requesten (memorials) 1715-1806. Vol. 1: Cape Times.

Marx, A.W. 1996. “Race-making and the nation-state.” World Politics 48 (2):180-208.

———. 1998. Making race and nation: a comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil: Cambridge Univ Pr.

Pampallis, J. 1991. Foundations of the new South Africa: Zed Books (London and Atlantic Highlands, NJ and Cape Town).

Price, R.M. 1991. The apartheid state in crisis: Political transformation in South Africa, 1975-1990: Oxford university press New York/Oxford.

Republic of South Africa. 1996. “Constitution of 1996.”

———. 1998. “Employment Equity Act, No. 55 of 1998.” ed. R. o. S. A. D. o. Labour.

———. 2003. “Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act No. 53.”

Reynolds, A. 1999. Electoral systems and democratization in Southern Africa: Oxford University Press, USA.

South Africa Bureau for Economic Research re Bantu Development. 1977. Bophuthatswana at independence: 6 December 1977: Benbo.

South African History Organization. 2006. Chronology of Apartheid Legislation 1856 – 1990’s [cited 2006]. Available from http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/special-chrono/mainframe-apartheidleg.html.

———. 2006. Chronology of South African History 1880’s [cited 2006]. Available from http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/mainframe-1800.htm.

———. 2006. Chronology of Black Education [cited 2006]. Available from http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/special-chrono/mainframe-blackedu.html.

Statistics South Africa. “Census 2001.” ed. S. S. Africa. Pretoria.

———. 1998. “The People of South Africa Population Census, 1996. Age Tables for South Africa and Its Provinces.”, ed. S. S. Africa. Pretoria.

Thomas, D. 1996. “Education across generations in South Africa.” The American Economic Review 86 (2):330-4.

Thompson, Leonard. 1990. “A History of South Africa.” New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Vail, Leroy. 1989. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. London: James Currey.

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Swaziland

“Ethnologue: Languages of the World.” 2009. ed. M. P. Lewis. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Baring, E. 1952. “Problems of the High Commission Territories.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 28 (2):184-9.

Booth, A.R. 1983. Swaziland: tradition and change in a southern African kingdom: Westview Press Boulder, Colorado.

Booth, A. R., and J.J. Grotpeter. 2000. Historical dictionary of Swaziland: Scarecrow Press.

Booth, Margaret Zoller. 2003. “Settler, missionary, and the State: contradictions in the formulation of educational policy in colonial Swaziland.” History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society 32 (1):35 – 56.

Bujra, Abdalla S., Sipho Buthelezi, and Development Policy Management Forum. 2002. “Leadership, civil society and democratisation in Africa : case studies from southern Africa.”xiv, 356.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 1999. “Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 1999: Swaziland.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.

———. 2005. “International Religious Freedom Report 2005: Swaziland.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.

———. 2010. “2009 Human Rights Report.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.

Cahoon, Ben. 2010. Swaziland 2000 [cited 26 May 2010]. Available from http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Swaziland.html.

Cort, M. A., E.S. Tull, K. Gwebu, P. Dlamini, E. Pinkney, E. Gramby, S. Cuthbertson, A. Daniels, S. Luu, and E.T. Gwebu. 2009. “Education and internalized racism in socio-political context: Zimbabwe and Swaziland.” The Social Science Journal 46 (4):644-55.

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———. 1997. “‘The Colour of Civilization’: White Farming in Colonial Swaziland, 1910 – 1940.” In White Farms Black Labour: The State and Agrarian Change in Southern Africa, 1910 – 1950, ed. J. C. Alan H. Jeeves. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Dube, Buhle, and Alfred Magalula. 2007. “GlobaLex: The Law and Legal Research in Swaziland.” In Hauser Global Law School Program: NYU.

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa. 2008. Swaziland: Tinkhundla electoral system  2008 [cited 26 May 2010]. Available from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/swatinkundla.htm.

———. 2009. Swaziland: Constitution  2009 [cited 26 May 2010]. Available from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/swa5.htm#fn.

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Fage, J. D. 1995. A history of Africa. 3rd ed. London: New York.

Halpern, Jack. 1965. South Africa’s hostages: Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

Kingdom of Swaziland. 2005. “The Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland Act 2005.”

Kowet, D.K. 1978. Land, labour migration and politics in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.

Kuper, Hilda. 1947. The uniform of colour, a study of white-black relationships in Swaziland. Johannesburg: Witwatersand Univ. Press.

Magalula, C. 1990. Implementing educational policies in Swaziland: World Bank.

Mgadla, P. T. 2004. “Of mistresses and concubines: miscegenation and European’shame’in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1911-1950: feature: conversations with historians.” South African Historical Journal 51:47-66.

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Sihlongonyane, M.F. 2003. “The invisible hand of the royal family in the political dynamics of Swaziland.” African and Asian Studies 2 (2):155-87.

Stevens, R.P. 1967. Lesotho, Botswana, & Swaziland: The Former High Commission Territories in Southern Africa: Pall Mall P.

Van Wyk, AJ. 1969. “Swaziland: a political study.”

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Tanzania

“Ethnologue: Languages of the World.” 2009. ed. M. P. Lewis. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Aminzade, R. 2000. “The politics of race and nation: Citizenship and Africanization in Tanganyika.” Political Power and Social Theory 14:53-90.

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Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2007. “International Religious Freedom Report 2007.” ed. U.S. Department of State. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor.

Campbell, J. 1999. “Nationalism, ethnicity and religion: Fundamental conflicts and the politics of identity in Tanzania.” Nations and Nationalism 5 (1):105-25.

Emory Law School. Islamic Family Law: Possibilities of Reform Through Internal Initiatives 2002 [cited. Available from http://www.law.emory.edu/ifl/index2.html.

Harries, L. 1969. “Language policy in Tanzania.” Africa 39 (3):275-80.

Heilman, B. E., and P.J. Kaiser. 2002. “Religion, identity and politics in Tanzania.” Third World Quarterly 23 (4):691-709.

Mawhood, P., and M. Wallis. 1993. “Ethnic minorities in Eastern Africa: Kenya and Tanzania.” Regional & Federal Studies 3 (1):170-89.

Miguel, E. 2004. “Tribe or nation?: Nation building and public goods in Kenya versus Tanzania.” World Politics 56 (3):327-62.

O’Connor, E. 1974. “Contrasts in Educational Development in Kenya and Tanzania.” African Affairs 73 (290):67.

Omari, CK. 1984. “Christian-Muslim relation in Tanzania: the socio-political dimension.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 5 (2):373-90.

Said, Daniel. 2008. “Tanzania: $176m National IDs Deal Headed for Disaster.” East African Business Week, 25 February 2008.

Stultz, N.M. 1972. “Multiracial Voting and Nonracial Politics in Colonial East and Central Africa.” Phylon (1960-) 33 (1):67-78.

Tripp, A.M. 1999. “The political mediation of ethnic and religious diversity in Tanzania.” The accommodation of cultural diversity. Case studies:37-71.

United Republic of Tanzania. 1977. “The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania.”

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Zambia

“Ethnologue: Languages of the World.” 2009. ed. M. P. Lewis. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Ambler, C. 1990. “Alcohol, racial segregation and popular politics in Northern Rhodesia.” Journal of African History 31 (2):295-313.

Carey, S.C. 2002. “A comparative analysis of political parties in Kenya, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Democratization 9 (3):53-71.

Chilaizya, Joe. 1995. “Zambia-Politics: More Support for Autonomy for Barotseland.” Inter Press Service English News Wire, November 9, 1995.

Grotpeter, John, Brian Siegel, and Jim Pletcher. Historical dictionary of Zambia (2nd). Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press 1998 [cited.

Klaveren, Maarten van, Kea Tijdens, Melanie Hughie-Williams, and Nuria Ramos Martin. 2009. “An Overview of Women’s Work and Employment in Zambia.” Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.

Leinonen, Teemu. 2000. Equality of Education – A Comparative Study of Educational Ideologies of the World Bank and the Governments of Zambia in 1971-1996, Department of Education, University of Tampere.

Levinson, D. 1998. Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook: Greenwood Pub Group.

Linehan, S. 2004. “Language of instruction and the quality of basic education in Zambia.” Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report.

Minorities at Risk Project. 2009. “Minorities at Risk Dataset.” ed. Center for International Development and Conflict Management. College Park, MD.

Posner, Daniel N. 2004. “The political salience of cultural difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are allies in Zambia and adversaries in Malawi.” American Political Science Review 98 (04):529-45.

Robins, Simon. 2009. “A place for tradition in an effective criminal justice system: Customary justice in Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zambia.” Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.

Sichone, Lucy. 1998. “Zambia: Land law is a set-back to the dark ages.” Global News, 1 October 1998.

United Nations Development Program. “Property Rights in Zambia.” In The Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor: UNDP.

Wimmer, A., L.E. Cederman, and B. Min. 2009. “Ethnic politics and armed conflict: a configurational analysis of a new global data set.” American Sociological Review 74 (2):316.

Zambia Land Alliance. 2004. “Land is Life.” In Submissions to Constitutional Review Commission: Zambia Land Alliance.

Regional Sources

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Zimbabwe

Alao, Abiodun. 1994. Brothers at war: dissidence and rebellion in southern Africa. London; New York: British Academic Press; St. Martin’s Press.

Alexander, J. 1998. “Dissident Perspectives on Zimbabwe’s Post-Independence War.” Africa 68 (2):151-82.

Burgess, M. E. 1981. “Ethnic scale and intensity: The Zimbabwean experience.” Social Forces 59 (3):601-26.

Butaumocho, Ruth. 2007. “Zimbabwe: Zim’s High Literacy Rate Result of Govt Commitment.” The Herald, 25 September 2007.

Embassy of Zimbabwe. Passport Renewal Requirements [cited. Available from http://www.zimbabwe-embassy.us/passport_renewals.html.

Fobanjong, J. 2001. Understanding the backlash against affirmative action: Nova Science Pub Inc.

Government of Zimbabwe. 2005. “Constitution of Zimbabwe.” Harare.

Herbst, Jeffrey. 1990. State Politics in Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hungwe, K. 2007. “Language policy in Zimbabwean education: historical antecedents and contemporary issues.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 37 (2):135-49.

IPS. 2001. “Women in interracial marriage – Still facing discrimination in Zimbabwe.”

Makiwa, Henry. 2003. “Zimbabwe: NAAC Seeks Stake for Coloureds.” The Standard, 23 November 2003.

Mungazi, Dickson A. 1981. The cross between Rhodesia and Zimbabwe : racial conflict in Rhodesia, 1962-1979. 1st ed. New York: Vantage Press.

Ndamba, G.T. 2008. “Mother Tongue Usage in Learning: An Examination of Language Preferences in Zimbabwe.” The Journal of Pan African Studies 2 (4):171-88.

Pape, John. 1990. “Black and White: The ‘Perils of Sex’ in Colonial Zimbabwe.” Journal of Southern African Studies 16 (4):699-720.

Stultz, N.M. 1972. “Multiracial Voting and Nonracial Politics in Colonial East and Central Africa.” Phylon (1960-) 33 (1):67-78.

Thodhlana, Juliet. 2000. “Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.” In Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

TIME. 1973. “Rhodesia: Apartheid Edges North.” TIME Magazine.

Regional Sources

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Africa Regional Sources

For all countries, used original census questionnaires when available, and when not, used: Domschke, E., & Goyer, D. S. (1986). The handbook of national population censuses: Africa and Asia. New york: Greenwood Press.

Also consulted all relevant chapters in:

Crowder, M. (2008). The Cambridge history of Africa. Vol. 8, From c.1940 to c.1975, Cambridge histories online (pp. xvi, 961 p.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Flint, J. E. (2008). The Cambridge history of Africa. Vol. 5, From c.1790 to c.1870, Cambridge histories online (pp. xv, 580 p.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oliver, R. A., & Sanderson, N. (2008). The Cambridge history of Africa. Vol. 6, From 1870 to 1905, Cambridge histories online (pp. xv, 891 p.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, A. (2008). The Cambridge history of Africa. Vol. 7, From 1905 to 1940, Cambridge histories online (pp. xx, 994 p.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Conducted searches on “google” and “google scholar” for each country on race, ethnicity, language, religion.

Examined National constitutions, contemporary government websites.

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  1. Pingback: New parties act aims to limit ethnic parties in Kenya « evan lieberman

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